Core Argument: Knowledge is power.
Conditional Argument: When it is useful to cut the root of ignorance, win over the ignorance, when it is effective and usable for the maximum to maximize their best… and until not used as a weapon for exploitation or subjugation the maximum, and until it is not imposed as a determinant to determinate the “maximum”s fate.
Core Argument: For such is the nature of man, that howsoever they may acknowledge many others to be more witty, or more eloquent, or more learned; yet they will hardly believe there be many so wise as themselves: For they see their own wit at hand, and other men at a distance. (Page 76)
Conditional Argument: Argument marked en masses to all as intend to acknowledge their own as superior to the other in question of learning. Considered as wittier, eloquent or learned than other is not an in-built nature of one. Instead of, it indicates the ignorance of knowledge and lacking of “Self criticism” of that individual one. Nature is itself impartial about the differentiation between knowledge and ignorance. Humankind started its journey as a nature-evolved being, as an ignorant about the internal mechanism (how it is functioning here) of nature, as a nescient to define its own rule in nature.
Humankind gradually educated itself in knowledge, so men could live in nature, fight and resist in nature, and acquire their own place in nature. The journey was begins here by cutting the ignorance which was once veiled under the unknown and mystic.
The progression of knowledge was the progression of acknowledgment that, the nature-evolved humankind gained its ability of resistance in light of acquiring knowledge by necessity, curiosity, discover, invention and experiment.
Self Acquire knowledge helped humankind to survive and now helping them build a new panorama a new realm of knowledge-oriented progressive society, where the comparative definition, consideration and acknowledgment is depended on to the “self-perception”, “self-recognition” and “self-criticism” and it is varied man-to-man.
Consider one’s own as “wittier, eloquent, or more learned” than another is the problem of reasoning, it’s a problem of consideration that, “Self recognition and perception” yet encircled by the ignorance and “self-criticism” is not correctly works there.
Nobody in this world (by nature) is more learned or ignorant than the other. Learning is relative to the societal surface and its attitude about the learning. Suppose, we can claim that we’re more learned than the Bushmen in light of progress, but can never claimed that we’re more perfect or happy than the San people. Their learning is yet inbuilt with nature, where they educated them utilizes the nature for survival, where educates each other by learning is more necessary than the comparison or “self-criticism”.
Our learning is different here. We began from the nature but learning process gradually separated us from the nature, where we defined the features of learning in light of civilized progression or enlightenment. So “self-criticism” seems necessary here cutting the egoistic consideration that, “I’m more eloquent or learned than other”, who is perhaps more learned than I am.
If anybody wanted to see his “own wit at hand, and other men at a distance” he needs “self-criticism” to resonate that he be the ignorant about other, he is not the one “most learned” and his reasoning about himself be erroneous than other. Since,
“The source of every crime, is some defect of the understanding; or some error in reasoning; or some sudden force of the passions. Defect in the understanding is ignorance; in reasoning, erroneous opinion.” (Page 180)
Core Argument: The world (I mean not the earth only, that denominates the lovers of it “worldly men,” but the universe, that is, the whole mass of all things that are) is corporeal, that is to say, body; and hath the dimensions of magnitude, namely, length, breadth, and depth: also every part of body is likewise body, and hath the like dimensions; and consequently every part of the universe is body, and that which is not body is no part of the universe: and because the universe is all that which is no part of it is nothing, and consequently nowhere. (Page 420)
Conditional Argument: Argument is utterly strong despite the contradiction of modern concept about corporal and non-corporal universe. Things that have structure and bodied by atomic architecture must be the part of corporal existence, as while the earth and so on in universe. Problem is that the bodied structure is not the certainty that everywhere in universe the bodied existence activating likewise earth and so on.
There is no certainty that the bodied existence will be lasting and repeating the same as it now. Certainly, the bodied existence of things follows the universal law to appear and repeat itself over-and-again to our sight, but it could be changed by any moment due to the uncertain behavior of chaotic particles in quantum level, because, they’re the building block of this giant bodied reality.
Modern concept measures that the visible and bodied part of universe consisted of only 4.9% ordinary matter, whereas 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energies are filling the whole universe. That means the universe has visible and invisible stuffs, which means, there is no void surface in universe. Therefore, yonder “Nothing” or “Nowhere” is not a relevant argument in light of universal action.
Hobbes placed this argument to deny the notion of God’s existence, since He (The God) is not visible or bodied by things, that’s why His existence is irrelevant “Nothing” here. What is visible what is activated to make the visible is our limit of certain knowledge and ideas about everything; what is incorporeal and not the reason of make this bodied sight, cannot be considered existed, and for this it cannot be treated or acknowledged as a part of knowledge.
Anyway, today it’s more important to think that everything (includes the invisible dark matter and energy) in this universe is the part of body, despite their non-visibility, because, they are not “nothing” or “nowhere”, the hidden players also functioning here to visualize the universal law to our sight. This mathematical reality is more important than the arguments of supernatural God existed or not.
To be continued to the next chapter…
Nobody in this world (by nature) is more learned or ignorant than the other.