I’m great and am the best,
you’re impotent for doing best.
I the winner, while you a loser.
I keep right to forcing you, but
you’ve no right to resist.
I wished to be protected, and
it’s your duty to protect me.
I’m the owner and
you the gardener.
I can play anything, but you haven’t.
I’ve a color of my skin, while
you’ve no color yet.
I’m the judge,
shielded me by ornamented crown,
you’ll combat for me,
to protect my kingship.
I’m a definition maker,
and you the carrier.
I chose women be my choice,
and you, don’t be dare to do this.
When my limbs stops the movement
It’s your turn now
to stopping you forever.
Since, the king is no more here,
nothing can be left for his followers.
They follow the king’s fate
embrace the fate according him.
Readers, above is the epitaph of a Fictional King. He was born in the gray line of history to rule the planet for many years. In his deathbed, the capricious king gave this speech to the copywriter and ordered him to write down a memoir. The copywriter carried his order and made an epitaph for the king.
This epitaph (even its fictional quandary) was relevant in past days and be still relevant today. Perhaps, it will relevant at future. Because, the epitaph reflects a hidden desire of power, an upturned desire to dominate everything existed in this earthly world. Power is deathless and domination is a never ended motivator of the game. Inner force of nature is frenzy; it is reckless to carry the powerful dominance and always struggling to obtain this.
We human are the part of this frenzy melodrama. Our basic biology bundled with a million genes and this encoded storage is imperious in nature. They fight here to hold their own interest of survival. An atomic “Power Show” always enforced us hidden to be cruel to be dominant and to be a reactionary against other. The fictional epitaph is considerable here in that context that yet we wanted to be engraved an epitaph for our own, which is declares our hidden desire of despotic kingship on others, where dominance and subjugation is universal.
Africa was the most exploited continent in all over the world, and exploited by the white masters and their minions yet even.
Despotic kingship is a game of superior and inferior. It’s a contrast between classes. The contrast of superior and his posterior yet not vanished and maybe it’ll never end. We spend a million pages to figure out the feature of contrast and domination, but solution is so far intangible to us. Immoral reality of power is playing all over the globe and enslaved human in grief and suffering, even in today.
Power is virtue and vice too. When we express our sympathy to the inferiors, we forget the basic social principle (which played a tremendous role to make every human dominant, aggressive, cruel and self-centered in nature against the goodness, benevolence, altruistic features) that if they get chances to be a superior their attitude will change overnight. “Social Contract” constructed us as an associated social being, as a storekeeper of social interest, and the same contract contrasted our mind to be the actor of dual binary, where we always tried to preserve our “self-interest” first.
Karl Marx explained the duality (in context of class contrast, surplus labor and consumption, monopoly of capital and economic interest) in his grand narratives and he explained it very well. Despite his suggestive “equality and social just under socialization” of wealth or utilization of wealth in a society, Marx failed to solve the problem, because it’s difficult to medicate the “personalized neurosis” in contrast of “socialized neurosis”. Both have their own manic deprivation to preserve the “self-interest” first.
Social justice and equality for all sounds good indeed, but these are vague words now. We, the Ancient Mariner in a “Power Ocean”, sailed our raft like a disoriented sailor. We’re thirsty for fresh water and singing “Water, water everywhere, /Nor any drop to drink.” Power of self-interest creates the riddle between to be virtuous and vicious and we’re just rafting here.
Anyway, I wanted to dedicate the fictional epitaph in memory of African music legend Fela Anikulapo Kuti, the desperate well-wisher and dreamer of African National Unity. His political agony against the kingship of Power Houses made him popular in his time. Fela wanted to be an African king and desirous to make opposite discourse against the power elites of his country and Africa too. He is memorable for his denial-philosophy to reject the sociopolitical and cultural hegemony of western world in African mindset. The self-declared king made his own republic in Nigeria and written the manifesto of Africanism that was Utopian indeed.
That’s why, the believer of African spirituality denied western democracy by calling it “Democrazia, —the demonstration of craziness”.
A true music legend, political activist and the great contributor of Afrobeat believed that music itself a deep spiritual thing and it could be uses to change the world. Music seemed to be a weapon for him, weapon for the man who is now battling against the unjust and disparities, and desperately raise his finger against the power-suckers of his own nationality. The music legend was desperate to protect his solo identity from the economic and cultural aggression imposed by the colonial master of west and their local minions. The reality of this denial in a sense was not stale, though it sounded a puritan nationalist but that was the reality in Africa (and many other part of the globe) on that time of Fela Kuti’s rebellion.
Fela tried to establish music as a weapon for politics, where every artist is a political person by his own ways of living, thinking and breathing. His overseas tour in Berlin Jazz Festival, it was late seventies and Fela came to a decision that, time is coming to change the meaning of VIP (Very Important Personality) to the new meaning of “Vagabond in Power” (listen the song track: Vagabond in Power). The music legend quoted himself there as well his mimicking style, and said:
“Many friends of mine asked me that how it could be possible for a musician to be the president of Nigeria! I ask them how it could be possible to be a Lawyer becomes the president of any state.”
The show was significant for several contexts. Fela and his band performed live there and he used the show to disburse his political message to the world that the disparity and deprivation of African mindset never omitted if they failed to rule them to their own African lifestyle. That means:
An African has its own roots and nationality. He is the owner of his own clan-oriented food habit, garments, music, literature and indeed the faith and morality, that was altered by the colonial regime and now destroyed by the minions of local power elites. In Berlin, he clearly tried to answer the question as like his ironic tone:
Many of here could ask to me, “You told about African origin but you or your followers are coming here to perform in western outfit as like any western, why? Is it not controversial?”
I wanted to remind them, “This question is a matter a symposium discussion that why I’m here in western outfit. You cannot deny the history that makes you either that is not befitted your African originality. Yeah, it’s a matter of symposium discussion and I tried to answer it by Afrobeat, which reflects what Africa is now and what it was to be.”
The Berlin show was a signal to the western listeners that this black continent is always contained a dark negritude in its heart to prove and disseminate the origin in spite of western influence, and that’s the African soul, which is still burning for freedom, justice, equality and yet burning to back the natural harmony. Only one thing could back Africa to its origin to its “self-define” negritude, if the political system in Nigeria and other African nation could change by revolution. The Berlin show was unprecedented for the western listeners due to several reasons:
Long sound track (Fela’s single song track takes average 15 to 30 minutes to play, where the 10 to 15 minutes is purely dedicated for the Afrobeat (with solo and ensemble dance of the group), rest is the song with lyrics, trumpeting and ensemble dance resonance.
Ironic lyrics with African idiom and vocabulary, where the west-influenced signage of English words and syllables continuously beclouded, distorted, replaced or manipulated by the local locutions.
Intentional political speech (with sarcasm) by addressing the power manipulator of west and their minions in Fela’s own country.
Flamboyant body-show of band members to push the African archetypal character in audience mind, and all these are intentionally organized to disseminate the message that, Africa needs to return its own system, its own sociopolitical rationality, if the black continent wanted to save and represent it soul as a Black African.
Fela Kuti never hid his political ambition, infect it was the key motivator of his musical journey. Music was a politically spiritual game to him, he liked to call it “African” but the spirituality turnover a nightmare for the rulers whose he called “Zombie”, indeed “Zombie” was an iconic soundtrack of Fela and got a massive hit in all over Africa.
Fela wanted to be an African king and desirous to make opposite discourse against the power elites of his country and Africa too.
His musical journey started in late sixties and continued until the killer angel chased and swallowed him as a HIV positive patient. Millions of fan was marching to his burial in 1997. He was then 58 in age; not a long lifeline indeed, but to think about his prodigal lifestyle, daring smoking tendencies and strong affection to cannabis, anybody will say that the lifeline maybe shorter even more. However, he meditated himself into the philosophy that every African should know how to live like an African, how to speak and protest like an African and how to meet or league with the world by keeping the Africanism in heart.
Yes, Fela’s thoughts, comments or dialects about Africa were the most enchanting and equally disturbing event appears in the postcolonial Nigeria. The Nigerians got their freedom from the British rulers in 1960. The country enriched by natural resources. It helped first to achieve the rapid economic growth and development after independence, but the growth fractured by greedy power elites and Nigeria skittles down in market inflation, unemployment, corruption, social injustice, bandits and robbers.
The unplanned urbanization of the country demolished the rural neutrality of Nigerian life and divided the people in two clear divisions, one is elite and another is subdued lower or lower middle class. The situation was even worse than the colonial period. Fela appeared in the scene twelve-year later of independence. He appeared in the scenario under the banner of a music band that he named Africa 70 (later changed by Egypt 80 and leaded by Fela’s youngest son Seun Kuti).
The musical band sprouting with a unique music style called Afrobeat. Fela outspokenly declared that Nigerians are already lost their African identity and slaved themselves to the western democracy. Time is coming to say “No” to the west. Time is calling the Nigerian to read the obituary of the local power elites. These people definitely seem like African but their faces stolen by the western civilization.
He declared a mission of raising his voice repeatedly to the corrupted agents of Nigeria. In these rebellious days, Fela Kuti frequently used a word that he called “Pansa Pansa”. The word came from Yoruba language and it means “Again and again”. Fela had his own explanation of the word and used to quote it publicly. According to his statement, “Pansa” turned into a symbol. It is a symbol of repetitive and rhythmic threat to the identity-destroyer of his country and the rest of Africa. He talked about Pansa like follows:
I know the Army-backed Nigerian government does not like to talk with me. The elites are dislike to hear my voice. They are reluctant to hear the true statement against their corruption, cruelty and aloofness about the fate of African people. They try to condemn me several times before, and last they destroy my house and all musical instruments, so that I ain’t move forward. Anyway, they yet don’t know it’s a strategic game and never be ended here. It’s their destiny to hear the sound over-and-again. My voice frequently echoing the word “Pansa Pansa” and it will never stop for a single day until my death.
In his musical journey of late sixties to ninety Fela’s denial towards the westernized mind-frame was reached to the peak of Puritanism. In his way, Fela was a self-declared “UniNational”. He denied capitalism, criticized socialism and simply kicked out Christianity and Islam for their artificial influence to destroy African origins, because all these systems and religion disintegrated Africans from their natural livelihood.
The pain of Identity lost was reflected greatly in African literature and Burkina Faso’s cinematic movement. It was reflected in Chinua Achebe‘s “Things fall apart” (and many other post modern literature), reflected in Sembene Ousmane’s lifelong brilliant cinematic representation about African history and its cultural collapse under invaders. His “Ceddo and Xala” is magnificently memorable cinematic dialects about African cultural conflict, identity lost, colonial alteration and crisis. Djibril Diop Mambéty‘s “Touki Bouki” was also a very strong reflection to the subject.
As an orator of African music, Fela harmonized the music with African tribal dance and trumpeting it by using the drum, saxophone and flutes like instruments. Trumpet and Saxophone itself the great instrument and have a blissful impact on Blues and Jazz music, but in Fela’s hand it simply turned to Afro Beat and rocked in like a devil’s speech!
He used these instruments to create satirical tune and horrific feeling, so that he can dedicate some fun and laugh to the power stature, so that he tease the activities of African government and multinational brokers in Nigeria. It was a rebellion against artificial and Fela was the master planner of this culturally political discourse. It was the battle between “superiority and inferiority”, “determiner and determinate” and indeed a battle between “imposed morality and natural morals”. Fela treated himself autonomously natural in morals and so on. He treated his solo as a renegade by compare the luxuries of modernized African elites, both of the ladies and gentlemen.
My voice frequently echoing the word “Pansa Pansa” and it will never stop for a single day until my death.”
His philosophy of African originality and naturalism made lot controversy on that time and yet it’s a debatable discourse according Fela’s context. We can remember the song “Lady”, which was massive popular in Africa, but not in west; and I don’t know why. Fela was never so popular in west. Perhaps his long sound track and politically intentional lyrics seemed boring to the listeners, or maybe they were in perplexed about his political spirituality, and most probably they didn’t take him seriously as a unfeigned singer in African Diaspora. Here I mentioned the extracted version of this song:
“If you call am woman/ African woman no go gree / She go say, she go say, I be lady o/ CHORUS: She go say, I be lady o / I want tell you about “lady” / She go say im equal to man / She go say im get power like man / She go say anything man do, himself fit do / I never tell you finish / She go wan take cigar before anybody / She go wan make you open door for am / She go wan make e man wash plate for am kitchen / She wan salute man, she go sit down for chair.”
If you call her a woman an African woman will not listen
She will tell you she is a lady
CHORUS: She will tell you she is a lady
Let me tell you about this “lady”
She believes she is equal to men
She believes she is as powerful as men
She will tell you that she can do anything men can do
Let me tell you
She is not ashamed of smoking in front of anyone
She demands that you open doors for her
She expects her man to do the dishes in her kitchen
She will sit down on a chair before saluting a man.
(Special thanks to Minna Salami for the song’s translation and interpretation.)
An aggressive song, tried to reflect the eternal masculinity of male dominant world. Fela punched out anti-feminist ideology here and he was greatly criticized for this sound track even after, but this song reflects his mainframe about traditional African life, where the rule of man and woman were fixed by natural demand and necessities. We have to remember that the target of this song was not the ordinary African women. Fela targeted the upgraded women who are now renovated their position as a “Lady” in African society.
“Lady” was treated a weird concept in African society on that time of Fela’s song. The “Lady” renovate her as westernized but forget the morals that: the role-play of every man-and-woman in African clan oriented society was fixed by natural autonomy of love and breeding, farming and housekeeping, modesty and humbleness for each other according to the laws of togetherness. This oriental attitude of natural and autonomous togetherness once made Africa, where it never treated and examined as male chauvinism or female suppression aspect. Life is natural, where everybody lives in a natural chain of deftness and necessity, and it is the scale of yonder society that, who will play which role in equilibrium. “Lady” is going out against the familiar features of clan, family and social exchanges, which the African used to live on.
Fela reflects the belief system of traditional but this traditional is not as like we believe or practice tradition in other corner of the world. To him, tradition means African neutrality, which is evolved in nature and sprouting on the ground of natural belief system, which stands far away from the modern feminist approaches. Fela himself brought up in an enlightened family. His parents sent him to London for studying Medicine but his choice was different. His father was a respected ‘Reverend’ under British colony and his mother was a socialist and feminist who even met Mao ZeDong, but Fela’s path turned on to refuse the ideology and back to the African tradition. He baptized him to the African tribal faith of idolatry and connected him to the Afro diversity or its essence of humanity. “Lady” (and many other songs) reflects his belief in Afro diverse origin. He said an interview once:
“In the spirit world, women are Aje [normally interpreted as “witch”]. The Aje whose physical manifestation could be womanhood is a spirit being with potentially positive and/or negative energies. As in the drama of life, the conflict that propels this force is both negative and positive…. The Aje rules us, rules the world, even when men assume that they have the edge. My mother is Aje, and so are all our sisters and wives.”
“To call me a sexist . . . for me it’s still not a negative name. If I’m a sexist, it’s a gift. Not everybody can fuck two women every day. So if I can fuck two women every day and they don’t like it, I’m sorry for them. I just like it.”
It seemed weird and objectionable to modern or feminist mind-frame, but in African oriental context feminism (or anything progressive and forward) perhaps carries different consideration. Blogger Minna Salami mentioned the inner characteristic of African mind -frame in her AfroPolitan blog’s article, where she wrote:
“Apart from being a phenomenal song, and despite – or perhaps because of –its problematic stance, ultimately I find Lady is an African feminist anthem thanks to its depiction of African women’s self-determination. As a commentary on gender and the intersections of ethnicity, modernity, class and tradition, Lady tackles some key issues in African feminist thought and is a valuable contribution to gender politics in postcolonial Africa. Most of all, Fela’s lyrics, if unintentionally, reveal the narrow space between Pan Africanism and feminism in which African women determinedly find our revolution. To quote the Black president, “Lady na master”!” (See: An African feminist analysis of Fela’s “Lady”)
So it seems maybe very traditional if we consider Fela’s disturbing song (and activity) in light of popular feminist culture of west and elsewhere. His contentious dialogue with the western culture creates another space to consider Fela’s activities as a promoter of Africanism, as an orator of African nature-evolved and nature-ruled lifestyle. He taught himself refuse to carry the western discourse to build him as a UniNational. He was a criticizer of Nationality (because, nationality creates despotic division between nations) and expositor of UniNationality (because, Africans are all tied in a chain in spite of their diversified clan based division, conflict and cultural clashes).
Life is natural, where everybody lives in a natural chain of deftness and necessity, and it is the scale of yonder society that, who will play which role in equilibrium.
That’s why, the believer of African spirituality denied western democracy by calling it “Democrazia, —the demonstration of craziness”. The Africans in fact are calling the word on that way! Fela never missed a single chance to way out Africa from the plagiarism of western discourse. He was a fighter and the fight belongs in every African nation, because the plagiarist mentality still existed in Africa, and it’s a threat for them to move forward by discovering their own style of Democracy.
In that context Fela Kuti was a post-modern subject and be near to the African postcolonial literature, contributed by Chinua Achebe, Aimé Césaire, Wole Soyinka and many more. His defense-style made him a pure puritan. Sometime his mockery to the western powerhouse was burst out in a threat:
“Hey teacher, don’t teach me the nonsense. Don’t try to teach me the way of living I decide”. (Listen the song track: Teacher Don’t Teach Me Nonsense)
However, Fela do the nonsense job by get married all of his co-singers in an African life-way and let them divorced at later. He was living like a vagabond on Kalakuta republic and many African treated him as a cult leader of modern century, but the Nigerian government treated the Pop legend a devil worshiper and tortured him many ways. They burnt his house, threw out his mother to the window, jailed and tried to sentence him several times. Fela’s mother was dying soon after the brutal moment of invade. This shocking incident angered Fela to be rebellious and he played the memorable song Coffin For Head Of State by marching the president house with his mother’s coffin.
The lifetime mission of Fela Anikulapo Kuti was to remove the African nation from the “confusion” and “Doubt”. He sang on that way to deliver the message that “Confusion breaks the body” (listen the song track: Confusion), so never throw you in confusion.
This was Fela Kuti! Who is no more belong in the earth now, but his memories yet hunt African people, even today. Fela’s Afrobeat yet influences the modern African song. Still, the Africans remind him (despite his controversial discourse); they miss his presence, because this man was the true inspiration for them to realize their “Self Identity” as an African.
The Nigerians until now cried for their great “Baba” and fall in sadness to feel that “Nothing gonna changed here and people are still living on “Confusion”! However, Fela was a mixture of African origins with a Utopian mainframe, who believe Africa should stands by its own origin. As Aimé Césaire once narrated his feelings that: when he see the African landscape, where the Savannah and tall trees makes a vibrant life, he get inspired to think himself as a tree, a pure African plant, which is not humiliated for his negritude identity. Because, this identity is not just for the African, because we all once lived in the giant African Savannah at the very beginning moment of Homo Sapiens.
An atomic “Power Show” always enforced us hidden to be cruel to be dominant and to be a reactionary against other.
Africanism is perhaps a Utopia, UniNationality maybe abstract consider today’s globalized world, but the reality is not abstract that, Africa was the most exploited continent in all over the world, and exploited by the white masters and their minions yet even.
Despite this, we should consent the reality that Utopia and reality is not the same cup of tea. Protest the “power domination and class contrast” and handle all this with justice and peace is not an easy matter at all. I love Fela’s political stands, admire his style of living as a self-strained “African” but don’t trust his Utopian nationality. Because, it absurd in today’s reality. Fela’s dialect was strong against his superiors, but if he get chance to be a president, I guess he will be the worst of them.
However, I wanted to engrave this epitaph in Fela’s shrine. It reflects his dialects against “domination”. Fela is no more in this world but his Afrobeat still buzzing over the human soul. Dear Fela, No matter wherever you are but rest in peace.
… Africans are all tied in a chain in spite of their diversified clan based division, conflict and cultural clashes…
Fela’s Persona (quotes, interviewed extracts, talks and comments):
“A Nigerian senator just told me : “If even only 5000 Nigerians started imitating Fela, it would soon be very chaotic here !”
“Fela : No, it would be a revolution!”
[Fela talking to Carlos MOORE.]
“I played a lot of jazz in the beginning of my career because it had cultural information that enriched my mind,” he said. ”Coltrane, Miles, Sonny Rollins, that era, because I found a heavy relationship between that music and my culture. That influenced me a bit, at the beginning of my career. When I changed, I used this knowledge to penetrate into the culture of my people.”
“When I lived in Los Angeles, I went to hear people like King Pleasure, but when I came home, I didn’t listen too much Western music. Instead, I listened to mostly traditional music of my country. When I came here, I tuned into a jazz station, which refreshed me about what my African-American brother has been doing.”
“I’ve studied my culture deeply and I’m very aware of my tradition. The rhythm, the sounds, the tonality, the chord sequences, the individual effect of each instrument and each section of the band I’m talking about a whole continent in my music.”
“I want to play music that is meaningful, that stands the test of time… It’s no longer commercial, it’s deep African music, so I no longer want to give it that cheap name [afrobeat]” [quoted in Brown 1986.]
“You cannot sing African music in proper English” [Talking to journalists.]
“Broken English has been completely broken into the African way of talking, our rhythm, our intonation.”
“The music of Africa is big sound: it’s the sound of a community”
“A lot of people play African music. It’s music of the people. It’s music of togetherness. The tonalities, the rhythms of the songs, it’s all African. We have 43 people on the tour, and a full show uses 35 of them. People tell me my band is too big, that I can’t go on tour. They try to use economics to destroy the culture of my people. Why should money get in the way when I’m promoting greatness?”
“With my music, I create change… I am using my music as a weapon.”
[Further views between economic and art.]
“That’s why I use politics in my music. That’s the only way a wider audience will get acquainted with the important issues. It makes sense culturally as well. In Africa, we don’t sing really about love. We sing about happenings. That’s the tradition: there are no love songs like “Darling, Kiss Me.”
“It just shows how low the mentality of my country’s leaders was. I thought they had developed a little bit of sense.”
[Talking to journalists about the 1984 September arrestation.]
“…when I was first put in jail, the name of my prison cell was ‘Kalakuta’, and Republic? I wanted to identify myself with someone who didn’t agree with the Federal Republic of Nigeria… I was in nonagreement.”
[Fela, on how he came up with the name; Kalakuta Republic, for his abode.]
Just Fela? Yeah, jus’ Fela.
Address? My house.
Where? Right here, in Surulere, man, yeah!”
[A conversation between Fela and the police officer who ‘checked’ him in at Alagbon Close police station in 1974, the very first time Fela was arrested.]
“When you are a colonial boy, you don’t know anything about your own culture”
“I saw that colonial education and upbringing, which America was involved in too, was very badly wild. History starts with Mungo Park ‘discovering’ the Niger! This pushed me so much I said I wanted to die in the struggle.”
“Underground spirituality means the world of musical and political participation in happiness” [Fela talking to people in Shrine]
“To be spiritual is not by praying and going to church. Spiritualism is the understanding of the universe so that it can be a better place to live in.”
[Fela’s explanation on one of his anti Christian views.]
“…man is here against his will. Where do we come from? What was before us?…when you think you die, you’re not dead. Its a transition.”
[Fela being philosophical on life and death.”]
“Sex is a gift of nature. Why do men make laws to check it? A law telling you where to fuck and another telling you when to fuck.”
[Fela’s views on why he likes having “unlimited access” when it comes to sexual intercourse.]
“Ko do mi.” His definition of the word condom.
[No translation here, sorry to all non Yoruba speakers.]
“I do not believe anymore in the marriage institution. The marriage institution for the progress of the mind is evil. I learned that from prison. Why do people marry? Is it to be together? Is it to have children? People marry because they are jealous. People marry because they are possessive. People marry because they are selfish. All this comes to the very ugly fact that people want to own and control other people’s bodies. I think the mind of human beings should develop to the point where that jealous feelings should be completely eradicated.”
“Everything I did wrongly is an experience…to be honest and truthful in all endeavors is an experience, not a regret.” [In response to being asked if he has any regrets.]
“That is my best friend because it is a gift of the creator to Africans. It is a spirit. Marijuana has five fingers of creation…it enhances all your five senses.”
[Pointing to and explaining the essence of a joint.]
“… I can’t fuck without grass, man. If you fuck with grass once you won’t want to fuck without grass anymore. It would be a useless exercise,…That’s why I started smoking grass o.” [Fela, sharing his views, unequivocally, as usual.]
“I have been smoking for 40 years. It helps my music. People know I smoke worldwide. It is not drugs, it is grass,…”
“To think how many Africans suffer in oblivion. That makes me sad… Despite my sadness, I create joyful rhythms… I am an artist… I want people to be happy and I can do it by playing happy music.
And through happy music I tell them about the sadness of others… So really I am using my music as a weapon.”
“I just want to do my part and leave… Not for what they’re going to remember you for, but for what you believe in as a man.”
[Fela’s response on what he would like to be remembered for.]
Source: Bello dine free fr
… Confusion breaks the body …